Pistachio. Grow two kinds of pistachios – a real and tupolistnaya. Pistachio is a tree up to 8 m or shrub. Distributed in a belt of semi-desert and polustepi the south of Central Asia (Tien Shan, Tau, the Kopet-Dag and along the shores of Lake Issyk-Kul). Results for pistachio registered about 73 thousand hectares. Fruiting begins from 9-10 years. In the natural bush – pistachio savanna fruit yields are very low. Nuts Pistachios are small (0.5-1 g) light colored, long conical shape.
The shell is solid, thin, two-leaf. When fully ripe the shell cracks along the seam and nut on one end is disclosed. There are unopened and nuts, what is worse, because of their more difficult to extract the kernel. Kernel pistachio green color of light, sweet taste, as an opportunity to clean the pillows on the equipment for cleaning pads. It contains over 61% fat, 24% protein, 2.5-4% sugar, 3-4% fiber and more than 3 % Ash. Pistachio eat fresh after browning. Used in the preparation of pastry and pistachio oils, as well as in medicine and perfumery. Fruits are picked at full maturity period.
At this point, outer shell of fruit becomes wrinkled, dark, dry off the stalk, the nut is separated from the hull. Collect the whole fruit bunches, dried and separated from the hull, then dried in the sun. On quality Pistachio nuts are divided into l-st and 2 nd grade commodity. In kernels of l-th class size to the largest diameter should be at least 17 mm, and the 2nd of 12 mm. The presence of nuts in the shell are, respectively, at least 60, and 30% immature and empty no more than 8 and 20% debris adulterated – 0.2 and 0.5%. Humidity in the nucleus of both varieties of nuts should not exceed 10%. Chestnut. Chestnut is a genus of trees, the beech family. It is known 14 species of chestnut. Need cleaning pads. In Russia is growing by one species – chestnut tree this big up to 35-40 m and a diameter of 1.5-1.8 m. It grows on a chestnut Black Sea Coast, primarily in Tuapse, Lazarev, and the Adler district of the Krasnodar Territory. In these areas, there are about 72 thousand hectares of chestnut forests. Chestnut forests of Georgia occupied by 46 thousand hectares. Fruits are edible sweet chestnut dark brown, irregular angular shapes, covered with a thin easily detachable leathery skin, under which is a white, sweet, slightly powdery core. Chestnut fruit are of great value as a food product. Unlike other nuts, they contain little fat and carbohydrates. At the core of chestnut contains about 22-26% starch, 8-12% sugar, 5-7% dextrin, 2-4% protein, 2-3% fat, malic, citric and lactic acids. In immature fruits rich in vitamin C. The core of chestnut is 82-84% weight of the fetus. Use fresh chestnuts, roasted and boiled, in cooking and confectionery. Gather the chestnuts in the restoration in October – November. After collecting the fruit free from the cupule and dried in air or in a dryer at a temperature of 56-57 C. The freshly chestnuts poorly stored. For long term storage of dried to a moisture content no higher than 14% and placed in storage at a temperature around O C.